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          工業的動力效力Energy Efficiency for Industry [David Malka大衛·馬爾卡]

          Abstract: Given the fact that most of plants in various industries currently do not manage their energy poorly, and the fact that in the 13th Five-Year Plan, Chinese government stressed on energy structure optimization, this paper introduces a comprehensive solution to industrial plants that is aimed to improve the energy efficiency in the plants, and create savings in terms of energy for the plants.


          Key words: Energy; efficiency; management; solution


          1. Current Status of Energy Management for Industry

          1. 工業動力效力的近況

          1.1 Problems

          1.1 成績

          Currently, most industrial plants manage their energy incorrectly. Plant owners are focusing on production, product quality, safety and environment. I definitely agree that these fields are very important, but that is not enough. In mid-sized plants, annual energy consumption may total $30-50 million and even more, which is a great deal of money. Therefore, it would be appropriate to emphasize the energy issue accordingly. Moreover, energy efficiency may improve production output, environment, product quality and safety.


          To verify the fact that the attention put to energy is currently inadequate is most plants, I would like to suggest an experiment. Ask the plant manager whether he knows or has a summarizing document indicating the amount of money paid for energy consumption in the past year and what was the consumption of all types of energy used in the past year. I can assure you that 90% of the respondents will not be able to provide such a document, which shows that energy management at the plant is deficient and requires immediate improvement. On the opposite, if you ask about the amount of production last year, you will get a quick and precise answer with all the relevant details.

          爲了驗證今朝大部門工場關於動力存眷缺乏這一現實,我有一個提議:向工場司理發問:他能否曉得客歲一年他的工場在能耗方面花了若幹錢?各項動力的消費量是若幹?他能否在整頓過相幹的文件來總結上述能耗情形?我以為90%的司理沒有方法拿出一份如許的文件來,那末這就解釋他們工場的能耗治理是缺乏的,須要即刻整改。反之,假如你問他們客歲的産量是若幹, 你會獲得一個疾速且準確的答復,涵蓋壹切相幹的細節。

          1.2 Suggested Solution

          1.2 建議的處理計劃

          We are aiming to improve the energy management on the site. How can we achieve this goal? To manage the energy on the site properly, we have to understand the energy consumption and how much we pay. To do this, we need a quality system to measure the total consumption or supply of energy, in order to understand the overall situation on the site. Afterwards, we would be able to examine every detail and choose the area we need to focus on.  First, we should focus on the main consumers with high energy cost and then the process begins.


          We need to examine the efficiency of large consumers by using smart tools that can help us see an even bigger picture and derive smart ideas to increase efficiency and save energy. It should be noted that the senior management must believe in the process and be committed to it, and lead it while allocating resources and evaluating performance throughout the process.


          One of our main problems is awareness to efficient work. There are many ways to raise awareness among employees, such as energy training, establishment of a performance evaluation system, which can be a software continuously displayed in the control rooms, establishment of incentives for success, as well as addition of an energy supervisor for the entire site.


          In addition, it is possible and even recommended to involve the employees in the process of evaluating performance on the site in terms of energy and efficiency, while using sophisticated tools, thus achieving the involvement and curiosity of the staff on the front line, who are also the majority – do not forget this.


          2. Technology Application in the Solution

          2. 處理計劃中技術的應用

          The energy efficiency technology that we bring is based on an organized methodology, which includes the use of smart tools and involves the managers and employees of the plant, meaning that it is based on joint work.


          At first, a general data collection is needed, which means the amounts of various categories of energy that the plant purchase, such as coal, electricity, steam, water, fuels, etc. need to be metered and collected. Based on that, we then need to build a list that include how much of which kind of energy had been distributed to which consumer. After that, additional tools will be adopted to measure the energy efficiency. Next, analyses will be conducted based on the results from the tools and ideas will be generated according to the analyses. After that, we need to filter all of the ideas and finally stay with a limited number of ideas. A idea ticket will be created for each idea that passed the filtration, including information such as saving calculation, investment required, payback period, etc. Afterwards, we decide together with the plant management on when and how to implement each idea. Finally, we can build a savings plan and streamline energy efficiency for over five years. In the course of the project, we are required to build performance tests for each process, while others are built on software, while others are on control room boards, allowing all employees to be exposed to performance and even take part in their examination.


          This program is suitable for any industrial plant needing energy efficiency improvement. The benefits of the program are: raising awareness and changing energy behavior both among employees and managers. In addition, the energy status of the plant can be organized, and all the issues with energy will be also discussed. There will be a lot of ideas of improvement, some of which even without any investment. From this point on, the plant does not return to its previous state, but progresses and becomes more efficient both in awareness and behavior and in their processes.


          Furthermore, we recommend to establishment of an energy department that could initially include just one person who is solely responsible for collecting all the information. In addition, he constantly conducts performance tests according to the goals set by the plant and always thinks ahead and examines improvements and introduction of new technologies.


          3. Examples and Analysis

          3. 例子和剖析

          3.1 Cost and Load Analysis

          3.1 本錢與負荷剖析

          As an example, we shall use an application tool called Cost and Load Analysis to examine the compressed air system at the plant.


          Prepare a table of compressors at the plant. The table should include the amount of compressors, name of each compressor, flow rate of each compressor and possible pressure of each compressor, and after measurements – the cost per compressed air unit of each compressor. In addition, prepare a list of consumers and build a long-term consumption distribution. A simple analysis will allow us to see that some compressors should be activated before the others, and we will probably find that we do not need to activate all the compressors, which will enable saving energy. This is one of many examples of using the tools.


          3.2 Losses Reflected by Unit Consumption

          3.2 單元能耗所反應出來的喪失

          Another example of examining the process energy efficiency by looking into unit consumption:


          Take the most energy-intensive equipment and start to examine the energy consumption according to the manufacturer per ton of product, i.e. the technology we chose. What is the actual energy consumption per ton of product? In most cases, the actual consumption will be higher that the consumption provided by the manufacturer, and this is where the engineering work begins by examining the source of gaps, and for each gap, we should find a solution, thereby contributing to increased efficiency and energy savings.


          Many other important tools can be used to achieve maximum efficiency.


          4. Summary and Future Enlightenment

          4. 總結與將來啟發

          4.1 Summary

          4.1 總結

          The government provides grants and launches information projects aimed to present the Chinese industry with the possible value of streamlining industrial energy processes. The main reason the government focuses on energy efficiency in Chinese industry is that most of the energy is wasted due to poor management of energy and electricity consumption at plants and industrial workplaces.


          The program, which aims to streamline and economize energy cost on industrial plants in an intensive manner, is a system-wide program that lists a long list of steps arranged within a methodology that touches the entire energy chain on the site. The plan defines expected savings, expected investments and priorities. In addition, the plan presents the things that must be done and the means of implementation, while defining milestones until completion, and even performs performance tests according to the defined goals.

          該項目旨在以密集的方法精簡和節儉工場的動力本錢,是一個體系性的項目,在一套辦法論的指點下支配一系列步調,這些步調觸及到工場的全部動力鏈。該籌劃肯定了預期的收益,預期投資和其他優先事項。 另外,該籌劃還會提出必需做的工作和實行手腕,同時還會肯定全部進程的每個裏程碑直到項目完成,乃至還能依據既定目的履行動力績效考察。

          Energy efficiency saves money - it's a fact. Most of the businesses that have already entered the process did not necessarily have to do so for reasons of environmental thinking, but out of recognition of the return that investment generates in streamlining. And if it is out of the environmental reasons and can make profits, it will be an even better thing to do, too. According to previous experience, a program as such can reduce around 10% of the annual energy cost for a plant.


          4.2 Future Enlightenment

          4.2 將來啟發

          For proper energy management, the following are required:


          Commitment of the management, defining the energy policy, setting goals and objectives, conducting work procedures, reporting and training employees, testing energy efficiency of various processes and taking corrective actions, constantly updating and improving, defining the required energy indicators.


          Defining the energy indicators required at the plant, while taking into consideration the following aspects:


          ·       Reduction of environmental impacts.

          ·       減小對情況的影響。

          ·       Identification and detection of energy efficiency potential.

          ·       辨認並找到動力效力晉升的潛力。

          ·       Benchmarking – comparisons with similar enterprises vs. sector data.

          ·       設立標杆——和類似企業或許部分數據停止比擬。

          ·       Establishment of indicators to examine energy efficiency.

          ·       樹立目標來磨練動力效力。

          Energy Efficiency Design


          ·       At the planning stage, prior to implementing any new project or installation, energy considerations should be taken into account.

          ·       在籌劃設計階段,實行任何新的項目或許停止任何新的裝置之前,都須要斟酌動力方面的身分。

          ·       Optimal efficiency of energy between various systems.

          ·       在各個體系之間到達動力效力最優。

          Monitoring & Measurement


          ·       Implementation of monitoring and measurement systems in order to verify savings and find new sources for efficiency.

          ·       設立監控和計量體系,核實收益,尋覓新的效力晉升點。

          ·       Installation of technologies that will lead to energy efficiency.

          ·       采取新的技術,進一步晉升動力效力。

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